Natural Laws

First Law of Thermodynamics:

            Matter and energy are relative. In a closed system, neither are created or lost. (A closed system is isolated from outside influence) “… the fundamental principle of physics that the total energy of an isolated system is constant despite internal changes”; energy changes form but does not increase or decrease qty.

ΔU = Q – W, where U = change in internal energy, Q = heat added to the system, and W = Work done by the system.

Second Law of Thermodynamics:

            In the absence of outside influence, everything falls into a state of increasing disorder (entropy; biodegradation, etc.)

Third Law of Thermodynamics:

            The entropy of a pure perfect crystal is zero at zero degrees Kelvin. In other words, in absolute absence of energy, no further (greater) randomness is possible; as the temperature of a system approaches absolute zero there is no molecular motion, which means there is no heat, and entropy approaches a constant (zero for perfect pure crystals) or when all molecular motion has stopped, no further energy is available. In a perfect pure crystal, every molecule is identical, molecular alignment is perfectly even throughout substance; for non-pure crystals, some energy will be associated with the imperfections, therefore entropy can’t become zero.

  • the entropy of any pure substance in thermodynamic equilibrium approaches zero as the temperature approaches zero (Kelvin), or conversely
  • the temperature (Kelvin) of any pure substance in thermodynamic equilibrium approaches zero when the entropy approaches zero

The Third Law of Thermodynamics can mathematically be expressed as

lim ST0 = 0 (1)


S = entropy (J/K)

T = absolute temperature (K)

At a temperature of absolute zero there is no thermal energy or heat. At a temperature of zero Kelvin, the atoms in a pure crystalline substance are aligned perfectly and do not move. There is no entropy of mixing since the substance is pure.

The temperature of absolute zero is the reference point for determination of entropy. The absolute entropy of a substance can be calculated from measured thermodynamic properties by integrating the differential equations of state from absolute zero. For a gas, this requires integrating through solid, liquid and gaseous phases.



            In the absence of outside force, matter will maintain its state indefinitely. – relevance in context of molecular activity in context of origins.



            The attractive force causing physical bodies to pull toward one another. Larger, closer objects à greater attractive force. No gravity: on impact, things fly apart.


Special Relativity:

            E = MC, where M refers to mass, E to total energy, and C to the speed of light. If the equation is true, where no matter exists (when Mass = 0, there is no matter), no energy may exist. Has wrongly been claimed to state that matter & energy are equivalent, or that matter can convert to energy. Mass and energy are relative one to another by a co-efficient of the square of the speed of light, but matter and energy are not equivalent, and matter does not “convert” to energy. (for a helpful explanation of Special Relativity:


Spontaneous Generation / Abiogenesis / Biogenesis:

            Nothing comes from nothing.

            Non-life is incapable of producing produce life.

            Like produces like (you don’t get cats from aardvarks, or strawberries from chickens.)


The Law of Cause & Effect:

            All things having a beginning must have a cause.


Design Theory:

            Design, by definition requires active, deliberate action resulting from intelligent input.